Frameworks are like a set of templates to build certain features of an application, instead of building the feature from scratch, you can easily build on top of the already existing structure, which helps developers build even more complex applications faster and more efficiently.
Front End Frameworks
Back End Frameworks
React can be used as a base in the development of single-page or mobile applications. However, React is concerned with rendering data to the DOM, so creating React apps usually requires additional libraries for state management, routing, and interaction with an API.
React is also known for its high-performance thanks to its use of a virtual DOM, which reduces the time required to re-render the view when the state changes. In addition, React offers support for server-side rendering, which can improve the performance of web applications by allowing data to be fetched before the view is rendered on the client side.
Pros of React.js
Solves the issues of HTML not being a dynamic template with JSX.
Allows for reusing components.
React.js is not opinionated in procedures or approaches to a particular implementation.
Cons of React.js
JSX can have a steep learning curve.
JSX, hooks, and data binding in React are opinionated.
Key Features of React.js
Virtual DOM: Every React component created is converted to a virtual document object model to adapt all new changes before the actual changes are made in the original DOM.
Cross-Platform: React native is a custom React renderer that uses native components to create user interfaces on mobile devices (iOS and Android) instead of web components.
React Flux: React created an architecture called flux that handles updating the view (React components) on the client-side effectively and follows the one data binding principle.
It was created by Evan You and is currently maintained by a team of core developers. Vue.js features an incrementally adoptable architecture that focuses on declarative rendering and component composition. It consists of a set of core libraries that are designed to be easy to pick up and use but also extensible and customizable.
The core library is focused on the view layer only and is easy to pick up and integrate with other libraries or existing projects. The one-way data flow model used in Vue.js makes it very straightforward to reason about your application, and its small size makes it highly performant.
Pros of Vue.js
Tiny size. Vue.js, if downloaded as a ZIP, only ways 18k as compared to other frameworks.
Simple to learn and is easily adaptable by newbies as they are more familiar with the HTML and JS script, usually in the same file.
Reactivity in Vue3 is achieved by using the Composition API. The Composition API provides an interchangeable way to set up reactivity that doesn't require decorators.
Cons of Vue.js
Small plugin library system.
Vue has a language barrier as some of its largest communities are in China, so Chinese developers create plugins and write documentation in their native language, making it hard for other developers to read.
Too much flexibility in the Vue framework is a disadvantage because of an inconsistent codebase.
Key Features of Vue.js
Composition API: By using the Composition API, you can use redux-like state management within your component without the need for external dependencies. This also results in a more intuitive code structure, making it easier to reason about your application. In addition, the Composition API provides better performance by avoiding the need to create unnecessary re-renderings.
Overall, the Composition API provides a more flexible and performant way to manage reactivity in Vue3.
Using CSS in a single file component also makes it easier to keep your CSS styles restricted to just that component.
Transition/Animation: Vue.js provides an in-built component called transition that allows you to apply animations to HTML documents when they are added or removed from the document object model dom. The transition component is available in every component across your Vue application.
Computed Properties: This feature is used to update the UI according to reactive data. It is advisable to use the Computed Property when writing any calculated functions that the UI is to be based on since we probably don't want to repeat ourselves if we need to reuse the function elsewhere in our component advised to use Computed Property.
Everything in Ember can be tagged as a service or a component, which is readily available all over your Ember app and can be called anytime. This means that you can have a long file of HTML template and decide to break it into small bits, and these bits can be placed in the
app/component folder, which makes that bit of your template a component and can be called as a custom HTML tag.
Furthermore, Ember’s routing system has tight integration with the browser’s URL. Ember uses its router to map URLs to a route handler. The router can match the current URL to other routes which are used to load data, display templates, and show the app state.
Pros of Ember.js
Convention over configuration helps reduce the number of choices to be made and, in turn, reduces error.
Most Ember apps have the same structure everywhere, which makes understanding a codebase easy within a short time.
Ember has a dev tool built into the ember-CLI that can be used to x-ray or debug your Ember app.
Cons of Ember.js
It’s very opinionated.
Learning difficulty is on the high side because things change fast, and when you try to find solutions, more materials are covered in the older solutions than the new pattern.
Key Features of Ember.js
Components: You can decide to break large junk of code into smaller units which helps reduce the complexity of code and makes it easier to maintain.
Routing: What sets Ember apart is the introduction of routing, which is used to manage URLs.
Service: You can create a third-party service in your Ember app that is available throughout the life cycle of your Ember application, and it can be generated using the ember-CLI.
Ember Data Models: Different applications have different models based on the problems they want to solve. An application might have a checkout or cart model, but if the user refreshes his or her application, we expect the data to be persistent and not lost. We can achieve this persistent data using the Ember Data Model.
Next.js is a free and open-source React front-end framework created by Vercel. It is used to build user interfaces and static websites. The framework is also capable of creating server-side rendering and universal applications.
_posts folder in the root directory, Next.js will generate a page for each markdown file inside it.
This feature allows for a faster development process, eliminating the need to create pages for each piece of content manually. Another unique feature of Next.js is its incremental static generation which allows for statically generated pages to be updated incrementally as new content is added or changed.
Pros of Next.js
Build static websites fast with dynamic functionalities.
Next.js stands out for SEO because it offers server-side rendering and the building of static websites.
Good community support.
Fast time to market: With pre-made components, you may enter the market more quickly while saving time and money. These components can assist your teams in swiftly enhancing and approving iterations.
Responsive design: Become flexible and responsive to ensure that your designs look fantastic on all devices, regardless of screen size.
Cons of Next.js
Poor plugin system.
Routing is constrained except for an option with Node for dynamic routing.
When an application contains several pages, the build time is really significant.
Key Features of Next.js
Pages: You can create pages and navigate them on the browser using the file routing system in Next. To use the file routing system create your pages in the pages folder
pages/first-post.js. The initial route is usually associated with the
Image Optimization: The image component is an extension of the HTML element
img. It’s improved for the modern web. The improved image component can help resize images on any device and loads the image only when it is in the viewport.
TypeScript Support: Next.js provides an integrated TypeScript experience in both existing and new projects. While creating new projects, you do not need any configurations to set up TypeScript.
Supported Browsers: All modern browsers are supported by Next.js and IE11 (Internet Explorer 11) inclusive with no necessary design. Polyfills are injected for IE11 compatibility and are only loaded when needed but are usually disposed of during production when not needed in browsers that have IE11 compatibility to avoid duplicates.
Data Fetching: Next.js features two types of rendering: static generation and server-side rendering.
Static Generation: Here, the HTML page is generated at build time, cached in a CDN, and is already built whenever requested.
Server-Side Rendering: In this case, dynamic content pages are generated and served to the client from the server and rendered on every request.
Layout: If you have to need your Navbar and your Footer on every page of your app, you do not need to add the Navbar and Footer component on every page. Next allows you to deconstruct a page into a series of components, wrapping the Navbar and Footer components on every page.
Angular.js allows you to extend HTML vocabulary to create interactivity in your angular application using directives, making the code more readable, expressive, and easy to develop. Additionally, Angular.js includes a number of built-in features such as data binding and dependency injection, which further simplify the development process.
Pros of Angular
Logic is separated from the view using the MVC pattern, which is most familiar amongst developers.
Angular is modular, which means when building an application, components, services, pipelines, and so on can be stored in an Angular modularity system called
NgModules, and these modules can be exported and used to create even more complex applications.
Reuse of components or using services might need to depend on other services sharing their instances with other components in other components. This is where dependency injection is needed.
Easy DOM manipulation. Since Angular works directly with the DOM, changes take effect immediately, and a virtual Dom is not required.
Two-way data binding.
Angular is very testable. Testing hooks are made available by the Testability service and can be accessed from the browser.
Cons of Angular
Understanding Angular takes time because of the intricate web of modules, coding languages, integrations, and customization options.
Angular is rather complex compared to React and other frameworks.
Key Features of Angular
Data Binding: This is just synchronization between the model and the view. When there is a change in the view, the model is updated; when there is a change in the model, the view is updated automatically at all times.
Directives: Angular allows you to extend HTML with built-in attributes with the
ng prefix. These attributes are used to add interactivity/functionality to your Angular app.
Dependency Injection (DI): A small part of your app can require HTTP service to make backend calls, with the DI system, you can deliver those service to the parts of the application that needs it.
Templates: Each template in Angular is a chunk of HTML code and a fragment of the application UI. It is regular HTML but with more functionality.
Pros of Node.js
Handling Concurrent Request: Node can manage thousands of concurrent connections on a single process with very little overhead.
Cons of Node.js
Too much reliance on callbacks.
Asynchronous programming makes it difficult to maintain code.
Developers depend on third-party libraries to complete certain tasks.
Processes one request at a time.
Key Features of Node.js
Event Driven/Asynchronous: One of the reasons behind the Node.js speed is that once a Node.js server is started, it initializes variables and functions and listens to any occurrence of events. This makes Node.js handle different connections concurrently without having to block the execution of other code in the server using callbacks.
Single-Threaded: Node.js uses event looping and single-threaded models. The event architecture makes the Node.js server respond asynchronously, making the server highly scalable compared to other servers.
No Buffering: Node.js applications do not buffer data; they out data in chunks.
Backbone.js is based on the Model View Controller (MVC) design pattern. The library supports seven components: Models, Views, Collections, Routers, Events, Sync, and Options. Backbone.js also provides an asynchronous communication layer that allows the application to communicate with a backend service.
Backbone.js is specifically designed for Single Page Applications (SPAs). A Single Page Application is a web application that loads all of the resources required to use the application on the initial page load. This eliminates the need to reload the page when navigating to different sections of the application.
Pros of Backbone.js
Backbone.js is lightweight. It is 20kB minified.
Backbone.js is flexible and easy to use. You can get started within minutes.
You can combine and match the components that work best for your application's requirements, and BackboneJS will get along with any improvements you decide to make, allowing you to adapt it to your project's requirements.
Cons of Backbone.js
It’s opinionated about RESTful API.
Writing unit tests can be difficult because you probably need to write long lines of mock code to write unit tests.
Backbone.js creates empty and redundant
divelements for its view.
Key Features of Backbone.js
Extensions: Backbone.js is an open-source project and contains over a hundred extensions.
Core Libraries: Backbone.js is meant to be used with jQuery and Underscore.js as backend technologies.
Models and View: It serves as the framework for your project and aids in the organization of your code by separating the logic from the UI, thereby leaving you with a maintainable codebase.
Collections: By managing the loading and storing of new models to the server and handling utility functions for performing aggregations or computations against a list of models, a Collection assists you in managing a set of related models.
Meteor.js also includes a number of built-in libraries for everyday tasks, such as networking, data manipulation, and UI rendering. In addition, Meteor.js provides a command-line tool for creating and deploying web applications.
Meteor.js is popular for developing real-time web applications, such as chat clients and step-by-step tutorials. It is also well suited for developing cross-platform applications that can be deployed on multiple devices.
Pros of Meteor.js
Real-time change on the server.
Running several copies behind a load balancer makes it simple to scale horizontally.
Build apps for both web and mobile apps.
Cons of Meteor.js
A lot of what is going on underneath is not properly explained.
Meteor.js is monolithic in as it is used to build for different platforms and uses one data source.
When distinct modules have divergent resource needs, scaling monolithic applications can be difficult.
Key Features of Meteor.js
Cross-Platform Development: Meteor offers a platform to develop applications across the web, Android, iOS, and the desktop.
Unicode Base: Use one codebase to develop the same app for other platforms.
Packages: Has a good number of packages to install and use.
Meteor Galaxy: Cloud platform for deploying meteor apps.
Express.js is a web application framework for Node.js, released as free and open-source software under the MIT License. It is designed for building web applications and APIs.
It has been called the de facto standard server framework for Node.js. Express.js' main features are its soft dependencies, plugin system, high performance, easy routing, and lack of callback Hell.
Express.js brought the component-based design to Node.js web applications! This helps developers reuse middleware and makes it easier to scale an Express.js project as your team members grow.
Additionally, Express.js v4 now comes with built-in middleware for handling AJAX requests from the client side, making it even easier to get started without having to worry about 3rd party libraries. Express.js is a great tool for quickly building out web applications and APIs in Node.js.
Pros of Using Express.js
Because Express.js is a basic framework, middleware packages have been developed by the Express development team to address various development issues.
Includes a variety of middleware modules that you can use to add to request and response operations.
Cons of Using Express.js
Error messages are not descriptive.
It has an unbalanced API.
Might have security issues.
Key Features of Express.js
Offers simple client routing requests.
Works as a middleware.
The Bottom Line
Before selecting a framework for your application, carefully review your project's needs. Each framework has special capabilities that you could need while developing. Along with the features, take into account the difficulty, learning curve, documentation for compatibility, and community assistance.